As water changes temperatures, its volume can expand or contract. This physical characteristic is important when designing closed recirculating hydronic systems without open sumps/tanks. These closed systems have specific volumes with pressure relief valves that will release water if the pressure set point is exceeded to avoid bursting pipes or damaging other equipment
Design and Operational Impacts
Theoretically, the maximum hardness-removal capacity of a water softener can be calculated from the grains of hardness of the water to be softened, the volume of resin, and the resin capacity expressed in grains/gallon. The actual capacity of a water softener may be impacted by many factors:
It’s that time of year when seasonal boilers should be prepared for the heating season. Before flipping that power switch to the “ON” position, however, the entire steam distribution and condensate return system needs to be surveyed to ensure it is ready for safe and successful operation.
By design, recirculating aerated water cascades through cooling towers to extract unwanted heat to the atmosphere. When foaming occurs, it can have negative impacts on both the cooling tower system and the surrounding environment. Foaming can not only confuse sensors and damage nearby equipment and car paint, it can also serve as a carrier for Legionella bacteria. Cooling water can foam due to a multitude of reasons. In some cases, it is even the result of a combination of factors. Some reasons cooling tower foaming may occur include:
Solid Water Treatment Programs
Cooling towers, steam boilers, and recirculating closed loop systems require effective water treatment chemistry for reliable and efficient operation. Liquid treatment chemicals are traditionally used because they are easier to manufacture and add to systems, but liquids aren’t always the best fit and present safety and environmental concerns that are often overlooked.