Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a water treatment technology that separates dissolved contaminants from water by using specially-designed membranes. RO membranes are semi-permeable which only allow “pure” water to permeate through them while removing the vast majority of dissolved solids from the feedwater stream. RO applications can include drinking water production, power generation, steam boiler pretreatment, wastewater treatment, and the manufacturing of beverage, semiconductor, and pharmaceutical products.
Water softeners are ion exchange systems designed to remove scale-forming calcium and magnesium ions prior to boiler, cooling, and reverse osmosis systems. Many different sizes and configurations of softeners are available, with selection based upon factors such as water quality, system demand, and the overall application. In industrial applications, it is imperative that a properly sized softener is selected to ensure that hardness is not allowed to pass to critical system components. Both over and under-sized softeners can result in serious problems due to hard water in these systems.
A Guide to Media Types
Waters from all over the world may contain suspended solids, microorganisms, and other unwanted contaminants that can cause damage to water systems. Heat exchangers, boiler tubes, cooling tower fill, system piping, etc. can become fouled without proper filtration. This results in a reduction in energy efficiency and increased maintenance repair costs.
Water softeners are ion exchange systems designed to remove scale-forming calcium and magnesium ions prior to boiler, cooling, and reverse osmosis systems. The amount of hardness a softener can remove between regenerations is known as the softener capacity and can be expressed either in grains or in gallons. Capacity is important when sizing, configuring, or troubleshooting a softener.
From Design to Cleaning
Reverse osmosis (RO) produces high-purity water for use in many applications, including low and high pressure boilers, manufacturing processes, cleaning, and ultrapure water systems. RO offers numerous benefits that can save water, fuel, operating costs, labor, and more. Understanding how it works will help in the selection, maintenance, and operation of RO systems.