The term “cycles of concentration” is the basis for one of the most important concepts in industrial water treatment. The cycles of concentration measure the degree to which the solid impurities in the makeup water are concentrated in the recirculating water of an evaporative system. The higher this ratio, the more the impurities in the makeup water are being concentrated in the system water. This directly impacts the system’s water usage and treatment requirements along with the potential for waterside problems to occur, such as scale deposits and corrosion.
As water changes temperatures, its volume can expand or contract. This physical characteristic is important when designing closed recirculating hydronic systems without open sumps/tanks. These closed systems have specific volumes with pressure relief valves that will release water if the pressure set point is exceeded to avoid bursting pipes or damaging other equipment
Design and Operational Impacts
Theoretically, the maximum hardness-removal capacity of a water softener can be calculated from the grains of hardness of the water to be softened, the volume of resin, and the resin capacity expressed in grains/gallon. The actual capacity of a water softener may be impacted by many factors:
It’s that time of year when seasonal boilers should be prepared for the heating season. Before flipping that power switch to the “ON” position, however, the entire steam distribution and condensate return system needs to be surveyed to ensure it is ready for safe and successful operation.
By design, recirculating aerated water cascades through cooling towers to extract unwanted heat to the atmosphere. When foaming occurs, it can have negative impacts on both the cooling tower system and the surrounding environment. Foaming can not only confuse sensors and damage nearby equipment and car paint, it can also serve as a carrier for Legionella bacteria. Cooling water can foam due to a multitude of reasons. In some cases, it is even the result of a combination of factors. Some reasons cooling tower foaming may occur include: